Summer Reading List 2019

In the weeks and months leading up to a vacation, I start to revisit the books that have been on my reading list. I take a look at books that are currently in process, those that I purchased but have been sitting on a shelf(real and virtual), and the ones that I have heard people talking about recently.

Like most, my interests ebb and flow. I also tend to read more than one book at a time, usually balancing a more heavily researched based book with a biography, historical fiction, or more guilty pleasure, murder-mystery books.

So as we head into the Summer 2019, I thought I would share how my reading list is shaping up for this summer. I am sure that some new books will find their way on to the list and others may get bumped, but the best place to start is at the beginning.

Every Tool’s a Hammer by Adam Savage

81rv2mthYyLThis is a book in progress that I am in the final stages of reading. It started as a preview for a potential option for a faculty summer read and since that time was added as one of two options for faculty to choose from. Savage’s book focus on his journey as a Maker and the lessons he has learned over time. The book goes well beyond the ideas of physical making. His experiences creating are simply the way he introduces thought provoking ideas. I also really enjoy the way Savage defines Maker Culture and does not believe it is simply about building physical projects, but instead is rooted in the process that anyone takes to create something new.

 

Participatory Culture in a Networked Error: A Conversation on Youth, Learning, Commerce, and Politics by Henry Jenkins, Mizuko Ito, and danah boyd

61NsmghlY2L._SX350_BO1204203200_I was excited to find this book. It is based on a significant amount of research on the impact of virtual networks. I’m looking forward to this book, because it has a forward-looking approach, where as some other writings about technology look at the impact of technology solely from a place of deficit.

 

The Radium Girls by Kate Moore

51t862BXZO3L._SX327_BO1204203200_Radium Girls is one of the books that has been sitting in my Kindle app for a while. As a science teacher, I am a bit embarrassed that it has taken me this long to get to the book. However, I am committed to reading this story about the girls that were known as “shining girls” because of the work they did at the radium-dial factories for watchmakers. To ensure that it does not get bumped, I started reading it last night and it hits my interests of science and history.

 

Neuroteach: Brain Science and the Future of Education by Glenn Whitman and Ian Kelleher

51rW8gqCZXL._SX331_BO1204203200_I happened across this book from a Twitter recommendation by Rachel Frankil(@srtafrenkil). NeuroTeach comes out of the Center for Transformative Teaching. The book, which includes pages for the reader to complete, discusses the importance of teachers understanding how of “the brain receives, filters, consolidates, and applies learning for both the short and long term.” The underpinnings are that teachers have an impact on how a child’s brain develops simply by the nature of their work, so teachers should have a better understanding of how the brain works. This books has a textbook feel to it, so it should be like self-paced professional development.

 

21 Lessons for the 21st Century by Yuval Noah Harari

41ea1fBfXrL._SX329_BO1204203200_This book came highly recommended from a friend that has never missed on his book recommendations. 21 Lessons is Harari’s third book and completes the “trilogy” of Sapiens and Homo Deus. In his first two books he examines humankind’s history and writes about the future. In his newest book, Harari looks the issues we are facing at the present and will face in the near future. It has also been sitting in my Kindle App since December and it’s time dig into it!

 

A few other books that may make the summer list…

City of Thieves by David Benioff

Bitcoin Billionares by Ben Mezrich

Outcasts United: Story of a Refugee Soccer Team that Changed a Town by Warren St. John

I am not Your Perfect Mexican Daughter by Erika L. Sánchez

Here is what the NY Times had to suggest for summer reading

Class of 2019

One of the greatest honors I have as an administrator at a School, is the responsibility of overseeing high school commencement. In life, time is marked by moments where we push pause and can later recall the impact of the day. High school graduation is one of those moments. It is such a privilege to be able to be a part of such an occasion and be able to celebrate and reflect on those that you have seen grow during their time at your school.

At Brimmer we begin celebrating with families the evening before with a dinner for graduating class and their immediate family. It is a time to connect as a final time as a community and to celebrate.

Below are the remarks that were shared at both the Brimmer and May Senior Dinner and Commencement for the Class of 2019. Commencement may also be seen here through Brimmer’s online paper, The Gator.

SENIOR DINNER- May 29, 2019

Good Evening,

It is so nice to see everyone here tonight in celebration of the Class of 2019. A few weeks ago I was sitting down to watch an episode of Madam Secretary, but because of a late running sporting event a good portion of 60 Minutes was captured on the DVR. Usually when this happens I fast forward past the segments, but a story caught my eye on this particular evening. Anderson Cooper was interviewing an abstract artist by the name of Mark Bradford and something about this particular interview peaked my interest.

If I am being honest, as much as I enjoy looking at works of art, I do not always get their deeper meaning. I am more likely to revel in the beauty of a soccer match or a breathtaking sky, than a painting. I remember a trip to MOMA in New York City a few years back, struck by the beauty of the installations, but feeling at a loss about the deeper meaning the pieces were supposed to represent. Yet here I was sitting on my couch ready to watch Tea Leoni save the world through diplomacy-living out Brimmer’s mission I might add-and something clicked when I heard Mark Bradford describe the way he built his pieces.

Bradford starts with imagery of a meaningful historical event, sometimes a textured map or a photo, and then carefully puts down layers of painted colored paper on top or around the images building up the canvas. Effectively covering up portions of history. After creating these dense layers of materials, he begins to cut into them and pull back the paper, revealing portions of what is underneath- vibrant colors and new textures which had just been hidden. I found myself captivated by the levels of meaning he created through the work.

Bradford creates windows into histories that have been covered by the layers, revealing segmented views the same way an archaeologist learns about a society through the artifacts that are dug up. There were two ideas that resonated with me as I watched Bradford’s 60 Minutes segment. First was the way in which we are constantly applying new layers from experiences to our lives. The new layers cover up what came before, but at the same time, each new layer depends on what was laid prior to it.

During your time at Brimmer you have been creating your own layers. Each of your classes have built upon each other helping you develop more complex ideas, and these have been enriched by athletic contests, performances, Winterim travels, Model UN trips, and time spent talking with people in the community.

The second meaning I pulled from the Bradford art is the way in which the tears in the canvas create imperfections – imperfections that are beautiful and reveal what is not always visible and may easily be forgotten.

Our failures and mistakes are like the tears in the Bradford canvas. They help us reflect on what is exposed and how to grow from the experience. They reveal truths that we were unable to see before and help us look at a problem from a new perspective. Whether it was at Brimmer or will be in the future, if you view your imperfections and mistakes as a way to grow you will unlock new perspectives and opportunities.

One of the iconic figures from my early twenties was Mia Hamm. Hamm said, “You may get skinned knees or elbows, but it’s worth it if you score a spectacular goal.”

To the Class of 2019, I hope that in the coming years you continue to work hard, building up layers upon layers of experiences, but that you also get skinned knees, exposing what is underneath and giving you fresh perspectives, so you can reach your spectacular goals.

 COMMENCEMENT- May 31, 2019

I present to you the Brimmer and May Class of 2019!

As we near the end of commencement, I want to take one last moment to address this year’s graduates.

Earlier this year at the Bissell Grogan Humanities Symposium, Keynote Speaker, Dr. Raj Panjabi, spoke to the school, sharing his message “no condition is permanent.” Bringing his light, optimism, hope, and expertise to the global health crisis that is threatening the world. Dr. Panjabi is using his message to produce a light that is piercing through that darkness and creating hope.

That phrase, “No condition is permanent” can be explained in a number of different ways. Here you sit in front of us, gathered together for the final time. Whether it was fourteen years or two, each of you have changed tremendously during your time at Brimmer. Some of you have literally grown up.

All of you have each changed your own condition, whether it was stretching yourself to play a new sport, performing on stage for the first time, taking on a leadership role, or enrolling in classes that would stretch you intellectually. Not one of you is the same person as when you entered the school. Nor are you the same as a grade as you were at this time last year.

I remember so vividly sitting in the Rec Hall at Camp Wingate*Kirkland this past August listening to you describe the ways you wanted to be better individuals and as a group how you wanted to lead the school with kindness and optimism.

But you did not stop there. You took it a step further, visualizing your leadership and creating a plan. You immediately put into action what you hoped to accomplish. Yes, there were bumps in the road and moments you veered off course, but each time you found your way back. You defined your legacy as a class. You created something new at your School. You have left an indelible mark on our School.

Dr. Panjabi uses his father’s mantra, “no condition is permanent” to motivate his work to solve a global issue. While we do not expect you to follow in his footsteps, we do hope that you take this mantra to heart. You are in control of your own path. You do not need to accept anything as permanent.

As you move forward, I hope that no matter the circumstance, how dark it may appear around you, how unsure you are of your path, you always remember that you carry a light that is powered by the kindling of what you have learned during your time here at Brimmer.

Today you take the first steps towards taking your light from Brimmer and shedding it on the darkness you encounter. Each of you possess the tools you need to be successful. Each of you have your own unique light that you will use to illuminate the world.

You have left your mark on our community and we cannot wait to see how you change conditions in the future. Congratulations to each of you and your families.

 

Notre Dame Cathedral

The devastating news of the fire at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France shook the world this past weekend. During the news coverage, I found myself entranced by social media feeds filled with constant updates on the progress of the French firefighters, pictures of friends standing outside the iconic landmark, and reflections posted by many. Thankfully, there was no loss of life in the fire. While this was not the first fire at the famous cathedral, bearing witness to the event left us acutely aware of the potential loss of historical works archived by the landmark.
Over the past few days, my mind began to wander to the truly awe-inspiring places that I have traveled and those that our students have visited during their time at Brimmer. Different experiences and sites move each of us. Many of my strongest memories revolve around the mental images from my first experiences at places–stepping out of the tunnel at Fenway Park and seeing the bright green grass in front of me, seeing the morning mist dissipate over the Grand Canyon, exposing the breathtaking chasm in the Earth, walking up the steps of the Parthenon in awe of what humans had built, and experiencing the power of the Western Wall and Temple of the Mount in Jerusalem.
As a school, one of the reasons we believe so strongly in global education is to learn about different people and cultures, develop a more profound understanding of our world, and learn about the power and beauty of our planet. Having just returned from Winterim, we have confidence that the experiences students gained during that time has enriched their understanding of our world and helped them appreciate the richness of the people they met and the importance of the sites they visited both locally and globally.

Learning History Through Theater

In just a few weeks, the Ruth Corkin Theatre will be filled with students, parents, and alumni as we are transported back to New York City in 1899. While we will most certainly tap our feet and clap our hands to the music and feel amazed by the intricate set design and incredible choreography, it is also important to note that this year’s U.S. Musical,Newsies, offers an important history lesson to the cast and crew and those who watch the show.

Much like Hamilton: An American Musical helped to tell a historical story through song and dance, Newsies provides an opportunity to learn more about a segment of American History. Through its retelling of the 1899 Newsboys Strike, Newsies focuses on how society treated low-income children during this time period. Through dialogue and lyrics, we are given a glimpse of what it was like to be a child before protective labor laws. While early 20th-century America would shift its view on child labor laws, the United States did not ratify a change until 1938 when Congress passed the Fair Labor Standards Act.

Newsies is just one example of the importance that the arts and humanities hold in education. Theater engages audiences through storytelling and song, draws people into the story, and creates a connection to the characters. Angela Modany describes the process in a February 2012 Smithsonian article as “embodying empathy.” By creating connections to characters, either as an actor or observer, you empathize with their experience, gaining a deeper understanding of the historical context. The concept of embodying empathy is not a foreign one to Brimmer classrooms. Whether it is through special programming like Model UN, the Chinese Temple Fair, Winterim, and community service days, or in-classroom mock trials, debates, skits, and Harkness discussions, the Humanities and Creative Arts departments create experiences for students to build connections with people, characters, or events.

This year we have discussed the meaning of empathy and its etymology in detail. To be empathic means to be “in suffering” or to feel the feelings of another. In Dr. Helen Riess’ book, The Empathy Effect, she shares that we naturally connect to those with whom we share common experiences or traits. The concept of embodying empathy works seamlessly with Riess’ research. When students share experiences, they are both learning important topics and developing a profound connection that creates stronger empathic responses.

I look forward to seeing you at one of the performances of Newsies in March, and if you would like to learn more about the 1899 News Boys Strike in New York City, here is a link to resources produced by the New York City Public Library.

A Mantra to Live By

“No Condition is Permanent” was the title and central theme of this week’s Bissell Grogan Humanities Symposium keynote speech by Dr. Rajesh Panjabi. Dr. Panjabi captivated the audience as he shared his personal experience of escaping Liberia during the onset of civil war as a child, resettling in North Carolina, and eventually co-founding the non-profit, Last Mile Health. By embracing the mantra, “no condition is permanent,” Panjabi and his team have set out to change the way people in developing countries access health care by creating networks of support that could save up to thirty million lives.

The idea that no condition is permanent resonates as we head into Martin Luther King Jr. Day. Next week we will take time to recognize and honor the work of Dr. King and those who followed him. King also believed that no condition is permanent. He worked tirelessly as a non-violent civil rights activist in the fight for racial equity, a cause which ultimately cost him his life. In his final speech, “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop,” he whole-heartedly embraced this mantra when he famously said, “Well, I don’t know what will happen now. We’ve got some difficult days ahead. But it really doesn’t matter with me now, because I’ve been to the mountaintop…And I’ve seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the Promised Land.”

People like Dr. Martin Luther King and Dr. Rajesh Panjabi are inspirational, but we don’t want students to be daunted by the scope of their impact. We asked students to think about the conditions that exist in their lives that they can work towards changing and how might they react to changes that are not within their control. How might they approach improving their work as a student, becoming involved in a cause that they connect with, or trying a new activity or extracurricular to move out of their comfort zone?
We asked the 12th graders to think about the legacy they want to leave on the School and what they hope to accomplish during their final months as Brimmer students. Some of the goals that members of the Class of 2019 shared were: “I want to build an even more supportive community by going to more community events”; “I want to help the community know more about traditional Chinese culture”; “I want to help my friends who will be CAP leaders next year develop their voice as leaders”; and “I want to promote the idea of what it means to be a student-athlete and a leader among the community and becoming mindful of the impact (negative & positive) that we have on each other.”
As our students continue to figure out their place in the world, I hope that they will carry with them the idea that no condition is permanent.

Mindfulness: The benefits and alternative ways to connect

It has not been due to a lack of effort, but I have never been able to get into yoga. Hearing about all the positives that are associated with it, both of mind and body, I was eager to try it. After a 10-week session a number of years ago, I enjoyed the physical aspect of yoga, but was never able to connect effectively with the mindfulness piece.

Over the last 5-7 years, the efforts to improve wellness programs and include mindfulness exercises has been a national trend in schools. At Brimmer, we continue to evaluate our programming, tweak existing options, and provide new opportunities. This has included inviting Will Slotnick from the Wellness Collaborative to talk with students about managing stress and anxiety and the risks involved in using alcohol, drugs, and, more recently, e-cigarettes. Slotnick addresses the subject from the perspective of managing stress and incorporates meditation and mindfulness into the program. After sessions, students report feeling more connected to their thoughts and feeling more relaxed. In addition to being armed with important information, they can physically be seen carrying their shoulders lower as much of the stress has melted away during the sessions.

In a 2011 article (full publication can be found here)from the American Psychological Association journal, Psychotherapy, Dr. Daphne Davis and Dr. Jeffrey Hayes share “empirically supported benefits of mindfulness.” The list of benefits is one that we would all want for our students and children: stress reduction, boosts to working memory, improved focus, and more flexibility in challenging situations. In 2013, in an article published by the National Institute of Health in Social Cognative and Affective Neuroscience, research on the use of meditation was reported to improve emotional stability, supporting and building upon the documented research of its benefits. This was further supported by neuroscience research that showed increased serotonin levels in those that practiced meditation. So, while incorporating mindfulness as skill has been a trend, it is also very much supported by nationally recognized research.

Knowing this, I have continued to listen and research what experts are saying, often trying out techniques to improve my own mindfulness. Slotnick has recommended phone apps like Meditation Studio to our students. Dr. Helen Riess, who spoke recently at Brimmer about her book, The Empathy Effect, suggested HeadSpace, and those with an Apple Watch or Fitbit are likely familiar with the built in mindfulness activities focused on controlled breathing and reducing one’s heartrate. I know that I have found these to be useful from time to time, but more importantly, many students have incorporated them into their daily routines to help manage stress.

I fear that when we talk about meditation and mindfulness we often lose Apple Piepeople once we use those terms. For some people, meditation and breathing exercises do not work. What do we tell those who cannot connect in this way? During Thanksgiving preparation last week, while I was preparing my apple pie, peeling apples, slicing them, and rolling out the dough, I found myself experiencing a heightened awareness of my own senses. During that process, I recognized that I was experiencing what I was missing during those yoga exercises. It turns out that baking, and also sports activity, that requires intense focus and mimics the effects of meditation.

Pyschology Today writes that mindfulness is “a state of active, open attention on the present. When we are mindful we carefully observe our thoughts and feelings without judging them as good or bad.” As we continue to venture into a world that moves quickly and we encounter incredible amounts of information at unprecedented speeds, we are going to find mindfulness activities will grow in importance. Whether it be through meditation, breathing exercises, baking, or shooting free throws on the basketball court, it is important that we help our students and children develop these skills.

61076975_m-Mindfulness
Photo Credit: Business Improvement Architects

Empathy: Exploring the Deeper Connections

As a community we continue to engage on our school theme for the year Empathy and Ethical Thinking. Whether it is through professional development for faculty and staff, programming with students, a more intentional focus in classes, or presentations to our parent community, it has been a tremendous experience so far this year.

Over the first few months, one theme that consistently comes up is the difference between Empathy and Sympathy. In a recent Upper School Morning Meeting, I showed the following video by Brené Brown.

The video vividly points out the differences between sympathy and empathy. This past week, the Parent’s Association welcomed Dr. Helen Riess, Associate Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and Director of Empathy Research and Training in Psychotherapy Research group at Mass General Hospital, to talk about her research in Empathetics. Near the beginning of her talk (click here for an earlier version at a TEDx Event), she highlighted the Greek etymology difference of “sympathy” and “empathy”. Sympathy coming from “sym” “pathos”, meaning with suffering, and empathy coming from “em” “pathos, meaning in suffering.

If we start with the most basic definition of these words, the difference is so clear. To have empathy literally means to be in the same feelings as the other person. This idea means a person has developed a deeper connection to friend, family member, colleague, or stranger by being in that moment with them, with those feelings. In addition to this clear definition, Dr. Riess highlighted that compassion is the action that we take when displaying empathy. She differentiated that the empathy was the internal feelings you have, while compassion is the action you take towards a person.

As teachers and school administrators, the question becomes what does this mean to our students? What are the ways that students may develop empathetic responses towards their classmates? And how do we guide students towards learning with empathy?

The first comes through the regular conversations we have on an individual basis, in small groups, and as a community. What does it mean for a child if they see a friend looking sad or more reserved? We are trying to help students understand that these are times to engage with their friends and not avoid them. In many ways, this has been something that Brimmer students have regularly displayed. Often, listening to their friends and helping them when possible. The more complicated situations for students come when a person’s actions may be hurtful. The automatic human response, especially adolescents, is to rebuke the person. With teenagers, this can often have impacts on social circles which just furthers any divide that may be created between each other.

What if instead, we were able to help the members of the community to have an empathetic response?

Our hope, through this year’s theme, is to help students move past the hurt and work to understand what the other person may have been feeling. Perhaps someone is not hanging out on the weekends, because they have a family member that was recently diagnosed with a serious medical condition. Or could someone that is carrying a lot of anger, be carrying guilt for a decision they made at a different time.

In our classes, we are highlighting the importance of empathy as well. This takes a front row seat in Humanities and Creative Arts classes, where the foci of these classes is the human experience. Just imagine the last book you read or show you watched and the connection you developed with the characters. In history, teachers are helping students see history through more than one lens. This fall US History students have debated George Washington’s decision to maintain the status quo on slavery and recently discussed the question- should we celebrate Christopher Columbus or think about Thanksgiving in a different way based on the experiences of people that were colonized by Europeans?”

In our design classes, students regularly are working to understand the user as they developed their ideas. As a parent recently mentioned to me, “empathy is one of the pillars of design.” This comes to life in classes like Problem Solving for Design and Architecture, as students spend significant amounts of time learning about the needs of the users and important cultural information. I would invite you to explore more at the BrimmerID portfolio page.

Regardless of where students may end up falling on these debates, breaks from the normal routine provide an opportunity to pause and reflect. Whether the time-off means time with family and friends, volunteering, or just a slower pace, I hope that students can use the time to connect in a deep, meaningful, and empathetic way.

 

Tree of Life Reflection

After a night of celebration and excitement with the Red Sox winning the World Series, Mr. Vallely and I want to take a moment to reflect on two more solemn things from this weekend.

I want to start by taking a moment to reflect on the antisemitism this weekend that resulted in the murder of 11 members of the Tree of Life Congregation in Squirrel Hill, PA.

I can still remember the smell of smoke and charred wood from when I was 13. Just a few weeks before my Bar Mitzvah, a man had come into my synagogue in Albany, NY, dousing the pulpit and ark with gasoline, and setting it on fire in order to destroy the holiest part of the building. The person came into the synagogue for no other reason, other than it was a Jewish building. Thankfully no one was hurt and though the damage was extensive, it would eventually be repaired. For me, this was not my first nor would it be my last experience with antisemitism. There had been and would be more swastikas painted and engraved on walls, derogatory comments directed at friends, and pennies thrown at me as I walked to my synagogue. Yet, despite these experiences, like most, within the walls of my place of faith there was a sense of safety.

However, something has changed over the past few years. We have seen people feel emboldened to use hateful speech. We have seen words of hate and bigotry turn into more deadly actions. Targeting specific faith base communities because of their beliefs or the way they appear. A shooting at the Sikh Temple in Wisconsin in 2012, the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church of Charleston, SC in 2015, and The Islamic Center of Quebec in 2017 are just the first ones that come to mind. Hate-filled people searching out those that had a different skin color or held a different faith.

Then. This weekend. This weekend we experienced a person filled with such vitriol go into the Tree of Life Congregation in Pittsburgh, PA with the intention of killing as many Jewish people as possible. Another example of unchecked hate that has taken the lives of at least 11 people. Mothers, fathers, grandparents, sisters, brothers, daughters, and sons.

Words are so powerful. They have the ability to build people up or to cut them down. They have the ability to build deep, deep, profound connections or to develop deep misunderstandings that lead to inhumane beliefs. While this inexcusable tragedy has left many with more questions than answers, out of darkness there comes light. The days after this tragedy have shown an outpouring of support- the Pittsburgh Penguins canceling a Halloween Party and hosting a blood drive instead; church communities offering to line the entrances to synagogues to show solidarity and provide safety in numbers; Muslim organizations raising tens of thousands of dollars to support the victims’ families; and an outpouring of love and kindness. We only need to look at the overwhelming response of support across the country to understand that our world is not as broken as it sometimes feels.

When my childhood synagogue completed rebuilding the damaged area, it included a thirty foot stained glass window of the tree of life. In Squirrel Hill, PA, The Tree of Life synagogue’s namesake is a symbol in western faiths of peace and tranquility. Amidst the turmoil and chaos of our world, this symbol serves as a reminder to lead with kindness and love.

To honor the victims of this tragedy, let the words you use be a beacon for building people up, creating understanding, and bringing about peace. By doing this you can be a part of the light that pierces through the darkness.

A version of this statement was shared at Morning Meeting on Monday, October 29, 2018. It has been edited for this format. In addition, thoughts were shared by Carl Vallely on the internment of Matthew Shepard.

Inspired to Lead

Your_Vote_Counts_Badge

Last weekend I had the opportunity to see the historical musical narrative Hamilton at the Boston Opera House. As a lover of musicals and American History, I, along with my family, have been enjoying the soundtrack for the past two and a half years. While historians will point out some of the artistic liberties taken in the telling of the story, there is little doubt that the musical has reshaped the way in which an entire generation of Americans will view the Founding Fathers. For many young people, the musical has been a source of inspiration to find ways to lead. While Hamilton the musical did not share this specific quote, in 1784 Hamilton, under his pseudonym, Phocion, wrote, “A share in the sovereignty of the state, which is exercised by the citizens at large, in voting at elections is one of the most important rights of the subject, and in a republic ought to stand foremost in the estimation of the law.”
Over the past eight months the country has seen an uptick in student civic engagement, which has been focused on elections and voter participation. In the spirit of Alexander Hamilton and this national civic engagement, students at Brimmer led a Voter Registration Drive on Thursday during lunch. Regardless of their political beliefs, students were given the opportunity to register to vote if they were 18 years old or pre-register to vote if they were 16 years old. I am proud to know that our students are thinking about the power they either hold or will hold as voters.
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Previous article on Hamilton.